Sungsung-yi is a geometric pattern largely under Jang-Seok Pattern category that is consisting of patterns and letters carved on an iron plate. Geometric pattern refers to the patterns made up of various types of straight lines, curves and the shape of squares, diamonds, points which have been established throughout the ages. and this naturally abstracted and developed since the ancient time, derived from sun, moon, thunder, Taegeuk pattern, and Pal-gwae pattern. Due to the nature of geometric pattern that can construct the design from a simple point to complex dynamic configuration also due to its flexibility in use from traditional to modern, it is being applied to various product line from a center piece (stone), napkin holder to the fashion brooches.
Geometric patterns are not representations of specific objects. Straight lines and curves freely meet and mix, creating patterns that form systematic and beautiful harmonies. Constructed from straight lines, geometric patterns are based on vertical, horizontal, and crossed patterns; each of their variations are assigned its own name. Neunghyeongmun, which is the one most commonly used in YÉOL’s current project, refers to a pattern that is comprised of consecutive diamonds.
ref. Green-glazed pot, Collection of the National Museum of Korea
Green-glazed pots of the Unified Silla era that were unearthed at Namsan Mountain of Gyeongju have diamond patterns all over its surface. Reminiscent of beads threaded onto a string, the neunghyeongmun pattern stamped onto cremation urns embodies a wish for the deceased to be reborn in heaven. This hints at how our ancestors thought of eternal life.
ref. Neunghwapan woodblock with neunghyeongmun(diamond patterns), image source: KRPIA website
Unique neunghyeongmun (diamond) patterns are also incised in neunghwapan (a printing woodblock that is carved with various patterns in order to decorate book covers). Going one step further from expressing simple diamond patterns in straight lines, more embellished book covers were also made by crossing two strips of swastikas (卍), and by adding taepyeonghwa (petals and leaves patterns), creating a background resembling diamonds overlapping. Through repetition, balance, and rhythms found in these neunghyeongmun patterns, we can commune with the minds of our ancestors who pursued order and harmony in life and the arts.
Bohwa (寶華) or bosanghwa (寶相華) is an imaginary flower created by combining the elements of various flower patterns (for example, by combining lotus patterns from India and Western Anthemion patterns) and then adding extra decorative touches to make it more splendid. In the shape of a round, full-blown flower, bohwamun patterns were most popular in the 8th century. During this time, these patterns found its way into the majority of the craftworks, including textiles, metals, and jeondol (tile). The pattern of an imaginary flower, bohwamun consists of complex diverse elements; it cannot be defined with one particular shape. Composed of layers of various floral patterns around the frontal image of a full-blown central lotus, a bohwamun pattern is splendid in its formality.
ref. Various elements constructing the bohwamun pattern, Image source: Culture portal website
Rows of flowers (expressed through small plant patterns composed of petals, palmettes, and dangcho (arabesques)) are expressed through two or three layers of overlapping patterns on the base frame that is composed of curled petals. The pattern constructs the form of a lotus that is bursting into bloom, expressing a form of utmost glamor.
The style of hair has been always an important part of women's beauty since the ancient times. Among all, because “Suh-Sik” was used in the closest point to the face, “Suh-Sik” has been regarded as the item beyond the ordinary accessory that outperformed with practicality and beauty. In the Choson (1392 – 1897 AD) Dynasty, there was a very strict cultural context around the gender derived from Confucianism and the hair accessory were only item that women can use for their beauty.
It is the pin has been used to be pinned on the bun style hair that has very unique function and shape. The shape of this pin (Bit-Chi-Gae) is relatively simple, because it was used in only practical purpose, with the carved patterns on its skin. Bronze alloy, the material used for the pin, has the color close to silver (depend on the ratio when it produced), and it has been widely used by the ordinary people as material for kitchenware.
The Duseok is metal ornaments attached to furniture, and their functions and uses are various. In addition, the patterns to be used are mainly applied to the patterns of various meanings such as notion gate, Restoration, Gil Sang, and so on. There are patterns such as twin Bok, Bosangwha, Blochos, Busunbon. twin Bok means a double pattern with a pair of bats, and a Bosangwha pattern shows a sense of superiority and nobility. Among them, Beoseonbon line was intended to contain the harmony of the curves and the Korean beauty.